August 14, 2017

Miwok Indians


Originally a distinct stock in the classificatory system of Powell, Miwok has now been made a subdivision of the Penutian linguistic family.

Miwok Indians. Miwok is the native word signifying “people.” Miwok Location.— The Miwok lived in three detached groups as follows: (1) The main body on the long western slope of the Sierra Nevada between Fresno and Cosumnes Rivers and in that part of the valley which is intersected by the winding arms of the deltas of the San Joaquin and the Sacramento; (2) the Coast Miwok from the Golden Gate north to Duncan’s Point and eastward to Sonoma Creek; and (3) the Lake Miwok in the basin of Clear Lake, including the drainage of two small streams flowing into the lowest mile or two of Clear Lake, and the southern bank of Cache Creek, the lake outlet, for a short distance beyond. Miwok Subdivisions Apart from the natural groups indicated above, the following dialectic subdivisions may be made out:

  • The Lake Miwok, identical with the geographical group just described.
  • The Bodega Miwok, about Bodega Bay in the coastal area.
  • The Coast Miwok, occupying the rest of the coastal area.
  • The Plains Miwok, in the deltas of the San Joaquin and Cosumnes Rivers.
  • The Northern Miwok, in the upper valleys of Mokelumne and Calaveras Rivers.
  • Central Miwok, in the upper valleys of the Stanislaus and Tuolumne.
  • The Southern Miwok, along the headwaters of the Merced and Chowchilla and on Mariposa Creek.

The Lake Miwok were furthermore subdivided into two, or possibly three, district or tribal groups:

  1. about the present Lower Lake,
  2. on the head-waters of Putah Creek, and perhaps
  3. in Pope Valley.


Miwok Villages

Lake Miwok:

  • Kado’ ?’-yomi-pukut, Cookman Ranch, toward Lower Lake.
  • Kai-yomi-pukut, in Pope Valley at the limit of Miwok territory.
  • Kala’u-yomi, in Coyote Valley.
  • Kawi-yomi, a town reported by Barrett (1908 b) on north frontier of Miwok, perhaps originally Porno.
  • Kilinyo-ke, at Eaton Ranch in Coyote Valley.
  • Ki’tsin-pukut, Gamble, in Coyote Valley.
  • Laka’h-yomi, on Weldon’s ranch a mile and a half from Middletown and on Putah Creek.
  • La’lmak-pukut, at north end of Middletown.
  • Ole’-yomi, on the Berry place in Coyote Valley on Putah Creek.
  • Sha’lshal-pukut and Shandk-yomi-pukut, at Asbill in Coyote Valley.
  • Tsitsa-pukut, according to Barrett (1908 b), a site at the north end of Miwok territory but believed by Kroeber’s informants to have been occupied by Miwok only in late times.
  • TsBk-yomi-pukut or Shokomi, 3 miles below the store or town of Pope Valley.
  • Tsu’keliwa-pukut, “at the new Siegler swimming resort.”
  • Tu’bud or Tu’bul, on Asbill property toward Lower Lake.
  • Tule’-yomi, 2–3 miles south of the American town of Lower Lake.
  • Tumi’stumis-pukut, given by Barrett (1908 b).
  • Wi’lok-yomi, near the present rancheria or reservation but may have been Wappo.
  • Wodi’daitepi, in Jerusalem Valley.
  • Yawl’-yomi-pukut, above Tsu’keliwa-pukut in a canyon.

Coast Miwok:

  • Amayelle, on San Antonio Creek.
  • Awachi, at the mouth of Estero Americano.
  • Awani-wi, at San Rafael.
  • Bauli-n, on Bolinas Bay.
  • Chokeche, near Novato.
  • Echa-kolum, on Tomales Bay south of Marshall.
  • Echa-tamai, at Nicasio.
  • Etem, at Petaluma.
  • Ewapalt, near Valley Ford.
  • Ewu, north of San Rafael.
  • Helapattai, on Bodega Bay.
  • Hime-takala, on Bodega Bay.
  • Ho-takala, on Bodega Bay.
  • Huchi, at Sonoma.
  • Kennekono, at Bodega Corners.
  • Kotati, at Cotati.
  • Likatiut, on Petaluma River north of Petaluma.
  • Liwanelowa, at Sausalito.
  • Lumen-takala, northeast of Cotati.
  • Meleya, on San Antonio Creek southwest of Petaluma.
  • Olema-loke, at Olema.
  • Olompolli, northwest of Novato.
  • Oye-yomi, near Freestone.
  • Pakahuwe, near Freestone.
  • Patawa-yomi, near Freestone.
  • Payinecha, west of Cotati.
  • Petaluma, east of Petaluma River and the present Petaluma.
  • Pulya-lakum, on the ocean near the mouth of Salmon Creek.
  • Puyuku, south of Ignacio.
  • Sakloki, opposite Tomales Point.
  • Shotokmo-cha, southeast of Ignacio.
  • Shotommo-wi, on Tomales Bay near the mouth of San Antonio Creek.
  • Susuli, northwest of Petaluma.
  • Suwutenne, north of Bodega Corners.
  • Temblek, west of Sonoma.
  • Tiwut-huya, on the coast outside of Bodega Bay.
  • Tokau, on Bodega Bay.
  • Tuchayelin, northwest of Petaluma.
  • Tuli, northwest of Sonoma.
  • Tulme, northwest of Petaluma.
  • Uli-yomi, at the head of Estero Americano.
  • Utumia, near Tomales.
  • Wotoki, on the south side of Petaluma River.
  • Wugilwa, on Sonoma Creek.

Valley Miwok – Plains Division:

  • Chuyumkatat, on Cosumnes River.
  • Hulpu-mni, on the east bank of Sacramento River below Sacramento.
  • Lel-amni, on Mokelumne River.
  • Lulimal, near Cosumnes River.
  • Mayeman, on Cosumnes River.
  • Mokel(-umni), on Mokelumne River.
  • Mokos-umni, on Cosumnes River.
  • Ochech-ak, on Jackson Creek.
  • Sakayak-umni, on Mokelumne River.
  • Sukididi, on Cosumnes River.
  • Supu, on Cosumnes River.
  • Tukui, on Cosumnes River.
  • Umucha, near Cosumnes River.
  • Yomit, on Cosumnes River.
  • Yumhui, near Cosumnes River.

Northern Division:

  • Apautawilti, between Mokelumne and Calaveras Rivers.
  • Chakane-sii, on Jackson Creek?
  • Kechenti, at the head of Calaveras River.
  • Heina, between Mokelumne River and the head of Calaveras River.
  • Huta-sil, at San Andreas.
  • Kaitimii, at the head of Calaveras River.
  • Ketina, between Mokelumne and Calaveras Rivers.
  • Ktiniisti, near Mokelumne River.
  • Mona-sti, on the headwaters of Calaveras River.
  • Noma, near the South Fork of Cosumnes River.
  • Omo, near the South Fork of Cosumnes River.
  • Penken-sii, inland south of Mokelumne River.
  • Pola-su, near Jackson.
  • Seweu-sii, on Jackson Creek?
  • Sopochi, between Mokelumne River and Jackson Creek.
  • Tukupe-su, at Jackson.
  • Tumuti, on the headwaters of Jackson Creek.
  • Uptistini, on Mokelumne River.
  • Yule, south of Cosumne River.
  • Yuloni, on Jackson Creek.

Central Division:

  • Akankau-nchi, two towns of the name,
    1. near Sonora,
    2. a considerable distance to the southwest.
  • Akawila, between a branch of Tuolumne River and Stanislaus River.
  • Akutanuka, northwest of Stanislaus River.
  • Alakani, east of San Andreas.
  • Chakachi-no, southwest of Sonora.
  • Hangwite, on the South Fork of Stanislaus River.
  • Hechhechi, on the headwaters of Tuolumne River.
  • Hochhochmeti, on Tuolumne River.
  • Humata, on a branch of Calaveras River.
  • Hunga, northeast of Sonora. Kapanina, southwest of Sonora.
  • Katuka, on a branch of Calaveras River.
  • Kawinucha, near the North fork of Stanislaus River.
  • Kesa, a short distance east of Sonora.
  • Kewe-no, on Stanislaus River.
  • Kosoimuno-nu, between Stanislaus River and San Andreas.
  • Kotoplana, a short distance west of Sonora.
  • Kulamu, on a branch of Tuolumne River.
  • Kuluti, at Sonora.
  • Loyowisa, near the junction of the Middle and South Forks of Stanislaus River.
  • Newichu, between Stanislaus River and a head branch of Calaveras River.
  • Olaw[ye, east of Sonora.
  • Oloikoto, on Stanislaus River.
  • Pangasema-nu, on a northern branch of Tuolumne River.
  • Pasi-nu, on Tuolumne River southeast of Sonora.
  • Pigliku (Miwok pronunciation of “Big Creek”), south of Tuolumne River.
  • Pokto-no, a short distance west of Sonora.
  • Pota, a short distance northwest of Sonora.
  • Sala, just south of Pigliku.
  • Sasamu, almost due east of San Andreas.
  • Shulaputi, just southeast of the preceding.
  • Siksike-no, south of Sonora near Tuolumne River.
  • Singawu-nu, at the head of a branch of Tuolumne River.
  • Sopka-su, southwest of Sonora between Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers.
  • Suchumumu, southwest of Sonora.
  • Sukanola, southeast of Sonora.
  • Sukwela, east of Sonora.
  • Sutamasina, on the South Fork of Stanislaus River.
  • Takema, on the Middle Fork of Stanislaus River.
  • Telese-no, northeast of Sonora.
  • Tel’ula, northeast of Sonora.
  • Tipotoya, on Stanislaus River.
  • Tulana-chi, on Stanislaus River.
  • Tulsuna, between the South and Middle Forks of Stanislaus River.
  • Tunuk-chi, northeast of Sonora.
  • Tuyiwu-nu, on Stanislaus River.
  • Waka-che, southwest of and near Sonora.
  • Wokachet, on the South Fork of Stanislaus River.
  • Wolanga-su, south of the junction between the South and Middle Forks of Stanislaus River.
  • Wtiyu, on Stanislaus River.
  • Yungakatok, near the junction of the North and Middle Forks of Stanislaus River.

Southern Division:

  • Alaula-chi, on Merced River.
  • Angisawepa, on Merced River.
  • Awal, on Merced River. Awani, close to Yosemite.
  • Hikena, on Merced River.
  • Kakahula-chi, on Merced River.
  • Kasumati, near Mariposa.
  • Kitiwana, on Merced River.
  • Kuyuka-chi, on Merced River.
  • Nochu-chi, near Mariposa.
  • Nowach, on the headwaters of Chowchilla River.
  • Olwia, on the headwaters of Chowchilla River.
  • Owelinhatihu, on Merced River.
  • Palachan, on a southern branch of Merced River.
  • Sayangasi, between the middle courses of Merced and Tuolumne Rivers.
  • Siso-chi, on Merced River.
  • Sope-nchi, on a northern branch of Merced River.
  • Sotpok, on a southern branch of Merced River.
  • Wasema, near the head of Fresno River.
  • Wehilto, on the upper waters of Fresno River.
  • Wilito, on Merced River. Yawoka-chi, on Merced River.

Many other village names have been recorded, but the above list contains all those which are well authenticated independent settlements. Miwok Population.— Kroeber (1925) estimates that in 1770 there were about 500 Lake Miwok, 1,500 Coast Miwok, and 9,000 Plains and Sierra Miwok, bringing the total to 11,000. The census of 1910 returned 670, but Kroeber estimates about 700 of the Plains and Sierra Miwok alone. The census of 1930 returned 491.

Penutian language family
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