Hokan language family

Hokan language family
 
The Hokan language family is a hypothetical grouping of a dozen small language families spoken in California and Mexico. In nearly a century since Edward Sapir first proposed the “Hokan” hypothesis, little additional evidence has been found that these families were related to each other. Although some Hokan families may indeed be related, especially in northern California, few linguists today expect Hokan as a whole to prove to be valid, and the term is often used as a convenient label to simplify one of the most linguistically diverse areas of the world.
The name Hokan is loosely based on the word for “two” in the various Hokan languages.Geographic distribution of the Hokan languages suggests that they became separated around the great central valley of California by the influx of later-arriving Penutian and other peoples; archaeological evidence for this is summarized in Chase-Dunn & Mann (1998). These languages are spoken by Native American communities around and east of Mount Shasta, others near Lake Tahoe, the Pomo on the California coast, and the Yuman peoples along the lower Colorado River. Some linguists also include Chumash, between San Francisco and Los Angeles, and other families, but the evidence is insubstantial, and most now restrict Hokan to 23 to 28 languages.
A relationship between Salinan and Seri was proposed by Edward Sapir at a time when the information about Seri was very scanty and when hypotheses about genetic relationships were being proposed on the basis of such. Bright provided a small amount of data which might have been developed as supporting evidence, but never was. The relationship is now considered doubtful and is certainly not at the level of a close-knit linguistic family. M. Langdon (1974) only reported the proposal in her historical review, and suggested instead (in a short paragraph) that perhaps a relationship between Seri and some other languages (Chumash, and Chontal of Oaxaca) might be possible. Both Seri and Salinan are currently considered language isolates since evidence relating them to the putative Hokan family has not been systematically or convincingly presented.
The inclusion of the Tequistlatecan languages has also not received much support. The Chumash languages were also once included, but that position has been almost universally abandoned.Hokan peoples left rock carvings, which we now refer to as petroglyphs, and can be construed as some of the earliest “written language” from the western part of North America. Although all of the symbols are not clearly translated, it is clear that considerable thought and effort went into the production of these carvings.
Language Family Trees
Hokan

     Hokan (23)

          Esselen-Yuman (10)

               Esselen (1)

                    Esselen   (United States)

        Yuman (9)

         Cochimi (1)

               Cochimi  (Mexico)

          Delta-Californian (2)

               Cocopa (Mexico)

               Kumiai   (Mexico)

         Kiliwa (1)

              Kiliwa (Mexico)

         Pai (1)

              Paipai (Mexico)

        River Yuman (3)

             Maricopa (United States)

             Mohave (United States)

             Quechan  (United States)

       Upland Yuman (1)

            Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai (United States)

       Northern (12)

            Karok-Shasta (4)

                 Shasta-Palaihnihan (3)

                      Palaihnihan (2)

                     Shastan (1)

                 Karok (United States)

          Pomo (7)

               Russian River and Eastern (6)

                    Eastern (1)

                    Russian River (5)

               Southeastern (1)

                     Pomo, Southeastern  (United States)

          Chimariko (United States)

    Washo (1)

          Washo (United States)

August 14, 2017

The Kamia Indians belonged to the Yuman stock of Powell now considered a subdivision of the Hokan family, their closest affinities being with the eastern Diegueno who were sometimes considered one tribe with themselves. Today, they prefer to be called Kumeyaay.

Hokan language family
August 14, 2017

Diegueno is a member language of the Yuman division of the Hokan language family. Tipai-Ipai is the common name since the 1950s of two linguistically related groups formerly known as Kamia (Kumeyaay) and Diegueno. Today, they once again prefer the term Kumeyaay.

Hokan language family

Shasta Indians

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August 14, 2017

The Shasta Indians were one of four Shastan tribes, the other three being Konomihu, Okwanuchu, and New River Shasta. The Shasta Indians constituted part of the Shastan division of the Hokan linguistic stock.

Hokan language family
August 14, 2017

With the Achomawi, the Atsugewi constituted the Palaihnihan or eastern group of the Shastan stock, more recently placed by Dixon and Kroeber (1919) in the Hokan family.

Hokan language family
August 14, 2017

The Halchidhoma belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock and are said to have spoken the same language as the Yuma tribe and to have been closely connected also with the Maricopa.

Hokan language family

Yuma Indians

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August 14, 2017

The Yuma were one of the chief tribes of the old Yuman linguistic stock, to which they have given their name, but their closest immediate relatives were the Maricopa and Halchidhoma. The Yuman stock is now considered a part of the larger Hokan family.

Hokan language family

Esselen Indians

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August 14, 2017

Originally given the status of a distinct stock, the Esselen are now placed in the Hokan linguistic family, their affinities being rather with the Yuman division, to the south, and with the Porno, Yana, and other groups to the north than with their closer neighbors of this stock, the Salinan and Chumash tribes.

Hokan language family

Yana Indians

3 Views
August 14, 2017

In the early nineteenth century, the Yana lived in the upper Sacramento River Valley and the adjacent eastern foothills. The elevation of their territory ranged between 300 and 10,000 feet. The Yana Indians were originally considered an independent linguistic stock but are now placed in the larger Hokan family. Its four divisions were Northern, Central, Southern, and Yahi.

Hokan language family

Karok Indians

3 Views
August 14, 2017

Originally considered an independent stock, the Karok are now classed in a much larger linguistic connection known as the Hokan family. Their closest relatives are the Chimariko and Shasta.

Hokan language family

Mohave Indians

3 Views
August 13, 2017

The Mohave occupied some territory in the neighborhood of the Colorado River. The Mohave belong to the Yuman linguistic family.

Yuman Language
August 13, 2017

The Achomawi Indians were originally classed with the Atsugewi as one stock under the name Palaihnihan, the Achomawan stock of Merriam (1926), and this in turn constitutes the eastern branch of the Shastan stock, which in turn is now placed under the widely spread Hokan family.

Hokan language family
December 27, 2001

AUTHOR:Don Cox

RENO GAZETTE-JOURNAL

William H. Jacobsen Jr. is recognized as the foremost expert on the ancient and complex language of the Washoe tribe that has occupied Carson Valley and surrounding areas for thousands of years.

For centuries, Washoe had been a spoken language. Jacobsen learned to speak it fluently. It wasn’t written down, so Jacobsen wrote it down.

Washoe Language