Treaties by Tribe

A-C
D-L
M-P
Q-S
T-Z
By Year

Acts of Congress      Agreements      Executive Orders
From 1774 until about 1832, treaties between individual sovereign American Indian nations and the U.S. were negotiated to establish borders and prescribe conditions of behavior between the parties.
The form of these agreements was nearly identical to the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War between the U.S. and Great Britain. The negotiations ended in a mutually signed pact which had to be approved by the U.S.Congress. Non-tribal citizens were required to have a passport to cross sovereign Indian lands.
From 1832 until 1871, American Indian nations were considered to be domestic, dependent tribes. Negotiated treaties between tribes and the U.S. had to be approved by the U.S. Congress.
In 1871, the House of Representatives ceased recognition of individual tribes within the U.S. as independent nations with whom the United States could contract by treaty, ending the nearly 100 year old practice of treaty-making between the U.S. and American Indian tribes
Between 1778, when the first treaty was made with the Delawares, to 1871, when Congress ended the treaty-making period, the United States Senate ratified 370 treaties. At least 45 others were negotiated with tribes but were never ratified by the Senate.
Congress ended treaty-making with Indian tribes in 1871. Since then, relations with Indian groups have been formalized and/or codified by Congressional acts, Executive Orders, and Executive Agreements.
The treaties that were made often contain commitments that have either been fulfilled or subsequently superseded by Congressional legislation.
In addition, American Indians and Alaska Natives can access education, health, welfare, and other social service programs available to all citizens, if they are eligible.  Even if a tribe does not have a treaty with the United States, or has treaties that were negotiated but not ratified, its members may still receive services from the BIA or other federal programs, if eligible.
The relationship between federally recognized tribes and the United States is one between sovereigns, i.e., between a government and a government. This “government-to-government” principle, which is grounded in the United States Constitution, has helped to shape the long history of relations between the federal government and these tribal nations.
Because the Constitution vested the Legislative Branch with plenary power over Indian Affairs, states have no authority over tribal governments unless expressly authorized by Congress. While federally recognized tribes generally are not subordinate to states, they can have a government-to-government relationship with these other sovereigns, as well. 
Federally recognized tribes possess both the right and the authority to regulate activities on their lands independently from state government control.  They can enact and enforce stricter or more lenient laws and regulations than those of the surrounding or neighboring state(s) wherein they are located. Yet, tribes frequently collaborate and cooperate with states through compacts or other agreements on matters of mutual concern such as environmental protection and law enforcement.
Tribes possess all powers of self-government except those relinquished under treaty with the United States, those that Congress has expressly extinguished, and those that federal courts have ruled are subject to existing federal law or are inconsistent with overriding national policies.  Tribes, therefore, possess the right to form their own governments; to make and enforce laws, both civil and criminal; to tax; to establish and determine membership (i.e., tribal citizenship); to license and regulate activities within their jurisdiction; to zone; and to exclude persons from tribal lands.
Limitations on inherent tribal powers of self-government are few, but do include the same limitations applicable to states, e.g., neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or print and issue currency.
Any “special” rights held by federally recognized tribes and their members are generally based on treaties or other agreements between the tribes and the United States.  The heavy price American Indians and Alaska Natives paid to retain certain rights of self-government was to relinquish much of their land and resources to the United States.  U.S. law protects the inherent rights they did not relinquish.  Among those may be hunting and fishing rights and access to sacred sites.

A-C
D-L
M-P
Q-S
T-Z
By Year

Acts of Congress     Agreements     Executive Orders

December 3, 2017

As colonists and later the Americans, crowded into Native American lands in the Ohio Valley and beyond, large chunks of those lands were usurped from the natives. This story was typical of the many mistreatments foisted upon the Indians. The Fort Finney treaty of 1786 was a prelude to the war for Ohio.

Treaties by Tribe Q - S
May 12, 2017

These are the articles of agreement and list of signees for a treaty made at Fort Gibson on the Arkansas River in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) on February 14, 1833 between representatives of the United States and the Western Cherokees (Cherokees west of the Mississippi River).

Treaties by Year
May 11, 2017

This treaty signed in the City of Washington on May 6, 1828 removed the Western Cherokee from the Territory of Arkansas to West of the Missississippi River. This is a copy of the full articles of that treaty, along with the list of signees. It also has clauses that pertain to the Choctaw and Creek Indians.

Treaties by Year
May 11, 2017

This is the full articles and list of signees of the February 27, 1819 Treaty with the Cherokee signed in the City of Washington, a corrected copy made March 1, 1819, and incorporating ammendments added at Cherokee Agency on January 6, 1817 and July 8, 1817.

Treaties by Year
May 5, 2017

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty made at the Chickasaw Council House on September 14, 1816 between the United States and the Cherokee Indians, which was ratified at Turkey Town October 4, 1816.

Treaties by Year
May 3, 2017

Articles concluded at Hopewell, on the Keowee, between Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, Joseph Martin, and Lachlan M’Intosh, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, of the one Part, and the Head-Men and Warriors of all the Cherokees of the other signed on November 28, 1785 at Hopewell.

Treaties by Year
May 3, 2017

This is the full text, along with the list of signees of the 1854 Treaty with the Chasta (Shasta), Etc. at Apple Creek, Oregon Territory struck on November 18, 1854 between the United States and the Chasta (Shasta), Scotons, and the Grave Creek band of Umpquas.

Treaties by Year
May 3, 2017

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty  signed June 9, 1855 at Camp Stevens, Washington Territory between the US and the Walla-Wallas, Cayuses, and Umatilla tribes, and bands of Indians, occupying lands partly in Washington and partly in Oregon Territories. It was ratified March 8, 1859.

Treaties by Year
May 3, 2017

This is the full text and signee list of a 1794 treaty with the Six Nations concluded at  Konondaigua, New York on November 11, 1794. The Six Nations include the Senecas, Mohawks, Onondagas,  Cayugas, Oneida and Tuscarora Nations. However, this treaty was never ratified by the US Senate.

Treaties by Year
May 3, 2017

This is the full text of a treaty made  between, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners on behalf of the United States of America, and the undersigned, principal chiefs and warriors of the Peoria, Kaskaskia, Mitchigamia, Cahokia, and Tamarois tribes of the Illinois Nation of Indians, on behalf of the said tribes, signed on September 25, 1818.

Treaties by Year
May 3, 2017

This is the full text of the articles of a treaty made at the Agency-house in the Caddo nation,State of Louisiana, on tJuly 1, 1835 between Jehiel Brooks, Commissioner on the part of the United States, and the Chiefs, head men, and Warriors of the Caddo nation of Indians, along with a list of the signees.

Treaties by Year
May 2, 2017

This is the complete text and list of signees for the 1855 Blackfeet Treaty made on October 17, 1855 on the Upper Missouri, near the mouth of the Judith River, Nebraska Territory. Signees included representatives of the Blackfoot Nation, consisting of the Piegan, Blood, and Blackfoot, and the Gros Ventres, Flathead, Upper Pend d’Oreille, Kootenay, and the Nez Percé tribe of Indians. It contained provisions against intoxication.

Treaties by Year
May 2, 2017

This article contains the full text of the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty with the Sioux and Arapaho signed on April 29, 1868 at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, and ratified on February 24, 1869.

Among the Soiux chiefs present were representatives of the Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet-Sioux, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arcs, and Santee Sioux.

This treaty covered more than 40 areas of concern, including the establishment of military forts.

Treaties by Year
May 2, 2017

This article contains the complete text and of the Fort Laramie Treaty signed on September 17, 1851, and signed by chiefs of the Dakota Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre, Mandans, and Arikara tribes residing south of the Missouri River, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and New Mexico.

Treaties by Year
May 2, 2017

The Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians became a federal tribe under the Additional Article of the 1823 Treaty with the Florida Indians. Six chiefs from among the thirty-two Florida Indian leaders were rewarded with tribal status and a 100 mile reservation in Northwest Florida as friendly allies of the Americans during the Patriot Revolution, War of 1812, the Creek War 1813, and the First Seminole War in 1820. That reservation was surrendered in the following treaty.

Treaties by Year
May 2, 2017

The Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians became a federal tribe under the Additional Article of the 1823 Treaty with the Florida Indians. Six chiefs from among the thirty-two Florida Indian leaders were rewarded with tribal status and a 100 mile reservation in Northwest Florida as friendly allies of the Americans during the Patriot Revolution, War of 1812, the Creek War 1813, and the First Seminole War in 1820. That reservation was surrendered in the following treaty.

Treaties by Year
May 2, 2017

The Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians became a federal tribe under the Additional Article of the 1823 Treaty with the Florida Indians. Six chiefs from among the thirty-two Florida Indian leaders were rewarded with tribal status and a 100 mile reservation in Northwest Florida as friendly allies of the Americans during the Patriot Revolution, War of 1812, the Creek War 1813, and the First Seminole War in 1820. That reservation was surrendered in the following treaty.

Treaties by Year

Crow Treaties

2 Views
May 1, 2017

CROW      Treaty With The Crow Tribe, 1825      Treaty With The Crows, 1868      Agreement With The Crows, 1880 (Unratified)      Treaty Of Fort Laramie With Sioux, Etc., 1851

Indian Treaties A - C OLD
May 1, 2017

CHOCTAW (Also CHACTAW; CHAKTAW)      Agreement With The Cherokee And Other Tribes In The Indian Territory, 1865     Treaty With The Choctaw And Chickasaw, 1837      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1786      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1801      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1802      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1803      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1805      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1816      Treaty With The Choctaw, […]

Indian Treaties A - C OLD
May 1, 2017

CHIPPEWA (Also CHIPPEWAY; CHIPAWA)      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1785      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1789      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1795      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1805     Treaty With The Ottawa, Etc., 1807     Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1808      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1815     Treaty With The Ottawa, Etc., 1816     Treaty With The Wyandot, […]

Indian Treaties A - C OLD
May 1, 2017

CHICKASAW (Also CHICKESAW)      Agreement With The Cherokee And Other Tribes In The Indian Territory, 1865      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1786      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1801      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1805      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1816      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1818     Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1830     Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1832      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1832      Treaty With […]

Indian Treaties A - C OLD
May 1, 2017

CHEYENNE (Also CHAYENNE)      Treaty With The Apache, Cheyenne, And Arapaho, 1865      Treaty With The Arapaho And Cheyenne, 1861      Treaty With The Cheyenne Tribe, 1825      Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1865      Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1867      Treaty With The Northern Cheyenne And Northern Arapaho, 1868      Treaty Of Fort Laramie With Sioux, Etc., 1851

Indian Treaties A - C OLD
May 1, 2017

CHEROKEE      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1785      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1791      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1794      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1798      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1804      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1805      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1805      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1806      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1816      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1816      Treaty With The Cherokee, […]

Indian Treaties A - C OLD

Cayuga Treaties

3 Views
May 1, 2017

Cayuga Treaties       Agreement With The Five Nations Of Indians, 1792 Treaty With The Six Nations, 1784 Treaty With The New York Indians, 1838 Treaty With The Six Nations, 1789 Treaty With The Six Nations, 1794

Indian Treaties A - C OLD
May 1, 2017

Alternate Names / Alternate Spellings: Blackfoot, Blackfoot Nation, Bloods  Blackfoot is the correct spelling, as it is spelled in Canada. However, the US Government made a mistake and labeled members of the tribe on the US side of the border Blackfeet.       Blackfeet Treaties: Treaty With The Blackfeet, 1855Treaty With The Blackfeet Sioux, 1865

Indian Treaties A - C OLD
May 1, 2017

Alternate names / Alternate Spellings: Belantse-Etoa, Belantse-Etea, Belaantse-Eta, Minitaree, Minnetaree, Three Affiliated Tribes Hidatsa Treaties Treaty With The Belantse-Etoa Or Minitaree Tribe, 1825 Modern Day Tribe Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation

Treaties by Tribe D - L
  • 1
  • 2