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February 17, 2003

How many indigenous American languages are spoken in the United States? By how m

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The following tables list 154 indigenous American languages which are still spoken in the United States, the number of speakers, and where the speakers are located. Table 1 arranges the languages alphabetically, while Table 2 arranges them according to number of speakers.

 

Table 1: Indigenous Languages Spoken in the United States (by
Language)

 

Speakers[2] Language Location
20   Abnaki-Penobscot Maine [3]
10   Achumawi California
21   Ahtena Alaska
256   Alabama Texas
90   Aleut Alaska
812   Apache, Jicarilla New Mexico
18   Apache, Kiowa Oklahoma
10   Apache, Lipan New Mexico
1,800   Apache,
Mescalero-Chiricahua
New Mexico
12,693   Apache, Western Arizona
1,038   Arapaho Wyoming; Oklahoma
90   Arikara North Dakota
150   Assiniboine Montana [3]
4   Atsugewi California
1,062   Blackfoot Montana [5]
141   Caddo Oklahoma
35   Cahuilla California
5   Chehalis, Lower Washington
2   Chehalis, Upper Washington
11,905   Cherokee Oklahoma; North
Carolina
5   Chetco Oregon
1,721   Cheyenne Montana
1,000   Chickasaw Oklahoma
17   Chinook Wawa Oregon
17,890   Choctaw Oklahoma
5   Clallam Washington
321   Cocopa Arizona [6]
40   Coeur D’Alene Idaho
39   Columbia-Wenatchi Washington
854   Comanche Oklahoma
1   Coos Oregon
2   Cowlitz Washington
1,070   Cree, Western Montana [5]
4,280   Crow Montana
9   Cupeno California
20,355   Dakota Nebraska; Minnesota;
North Dakota; South Dakota; Montana [3]
40   Degexit’an Alaska
1   Eyak Alaska
10   Gros Ventre Montana
365   Gwich’in Alaska
138   Haida Alaska
7   Han Alaska
1,007   Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai Arizona
1,000   Hawaiian Hawaii
100   Hidatsa North Dakota
250   Hocak/Winnebago Nebraska
12   Holikachuk Alaska
5,264   Hopi Arizona; Utah; New
Mexico
8   Hupa California
3,500   Inuktitut, North
Alaskan
Alaska
4,000   Inuktitut, Northwest
Alaska
Alaska
1,301   Jemez New Mexico
1   Kalapuya Oregon
200   Kalispel-Pend
Dóreille
Montana
19   Kansa Oklahoma
126   Karok California
50   Kashaya California
10   Kato California
10   Kawaiisu California
4,580   Keres, Eastern New Mexico
3,390   Keres, Western New Mexico
539   Kikapoo Kansas; Oklahoma;
Texas [7]
1,092   Kiowa Oklahoma
88   Klamath-Modoc Oregon
600   Koasati Louisiana; Texas
300   Koyukon Alaska
97   Kumiai California [6]
40   Kuskokwim, Upper Alaska
102   Kutenai Idaho; Montana [5]
6,000   Lakota Nebraska; Minnesota;
North Dakota; South Dakota; Montana
43   Luiseno California
60   Lushootseed Washington
10   Maidu, Northwest California
*10   Makah Washington
887   Malecite-Passamaquoddy Maine [5]
6   Mandan North Dakota
181   Maricopa Arizona
39   Menomini Wisconsin
800   Mesquakie Iowa; Oklahoma;
Kansas; Nebraska
2,100   Micmac Boston; New York City
[5]
496   Mikasuki Florida
5   Miwok, Central Sierra California
1   Miwok, Coast California
8   Miwok, Lake California
10   Miwok, Northern
Sierra
California
1   Miwok, Plains California
10   Miwok, Southern
Sierra
California
234   Mohave Arizona
20   Mono California
6,213   Muskogee Oklahoma; Alabama;
Florida
148,530   Navajo Arizona; Utah; New
Mexico; Utah
697   Nez Perce Idaho
12   Nisenan California
8,000   Ojibwa, Eastern Michigan [3]
35,000   Ojibwa, Western Montana; Lake
Superior; North Dakota [3]
112   Okangan Washington
85   Omaha-Ponca Nebraska; Oklahoma
50   Oneida New York; Wisconsin
15   Onondaga New York
5   Osage Oklahoma
2,000   Paiute, Northern Nevada; Oregon;
California; Idaho
20   Panamint California
11,819   Papago-Pima Arizona [7]
4   Pawnee Oklahoma
40   Pomo, Central California
1   Pomo, Northeastern California
10   Pomo, Southeastern California
40   Pomo, Southern California
50   Potawatomi Michigan; Wisconsin;
Kansas; Oklahoma
34   Quapaw Oklahoma
343   Quechan California
6   Quinault Washington
107   Salish, Southern
Puget Sound
Washington
30   Salish, Straits Washington [3]
200   Seneca New York; Oklahoma
1   Serrano California
12   Shasta California
234   Shawnee Oklahoma
2,284   Shoshoni Nevada; Idaho;
Wyoming
100   Skagit Washington
10   Snohomish Washington
50   Spokane Washington
65   Tanacross Alaska
75   Tanaina Alaska
30   Tanana, Lower Alaska
115   Tanana, Upper Alaska
200   Tenino Oregon
1,300   Tewa New Mexico; Arizona
927   Tiwa, Northern New Mexico
1,631   Tiwa, Southern New Mexico
775   Tlingit Alaska
5   Tolowa Oregon
113   Tsimshian Alaska [5]
6   Tubatulabal California
10   Tututni Oregon
50   Umatilla Oregon
5   Unami Oklahoma; New Jersey;
Delaware
1,984   Ute-Southern Paiute Colorado; Utah;
Arizona; Nevada; California
100   Walla Walla Oregon
69   Wasco-Wishram Oregon; Washington
10   Washo California; Nevada
10   Wichita Oklahoma
10   Wintu California
3,000   Yakima Washington
406   Yaqui Arizona [6]
78   Yokuts California
12   Yuchi Oklahoma
6   Yuki California
10,000   Yupik, Central Alaska
1,100   Yupik, Central
Siberian
Alaska [8]
400   Yupik, Pacific Gulf Alaska
10   Yurok California
6,413   Zuni New Mexico
361,978   TOTAL  

 

Source: Adapted from B. Grimes (1996). Ethnologue: Languages of the
world
. Dallas: SIL International. Updated February 1999 at www.sil.org/ethnologue.

 

Table 2: Arranged by Number of Speakers

Tribes by Language
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